Building Blocks of embedded system & CISC vs RISC

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An embedded system is built using a series of building blocks. Let’s take a closer look at them.

  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices
  • Central Processing Unit
  • Communication Interfaces
  • Memory (ROM and RAM)
  • Application Specific Circuit


RISC – Reduced Instruction Set Architecture

By adopting an instruction set consists of a few fundamental steps for loading, evaluating, and storing operations, the primary goal of this is to make hardware simpler. A store command will store the data in the same way as a load command loads it.

CISC – Complex Instruction Set Architecture

The fundamental notion is that one instruction may perform all loading, evaluating, and saving actions, just like a multiplication command can load, evaluate, and store data, which is why it’s difficult.

It is a Reduced Instruction Set Computer.It is a Complex Instruction Set Computer.
It Optimization of the instruction set is emphasized through software.It emphasizes on hardware to optimize the instruction set.
It is a hard wired unit of programming in the RISC Processor.Microprogramming unit in CISC Processor.
It requires multiple register sets to store the instruction.It requires a single register set to store the instruction.
RISC has simple decoding of instruction.CISC has complex decoding of instruction.
Uses of the pipeline are simple in RISC.Uses of the pipeline are difficult in CISC.
It Utilizes a limited number of instructions that take less time to execute.It Exercising the instructions requires more time because there are a lot of them.
It uses LOAD and STORE that are independent instructions in the register-to-register a program’s interaction.It In memory-to-memory interaction, a program uses LOAD and STORE instructions.
RISC has more transistors on memory registers.CISC has transistors to store complex instructions.
The execution time of RISC is very short.The execution time of CISC is longer.
RISC architecture can be used with high-end applications like telecommunication, image processing, video processing, etc.CISC architecture can be used with low-end applications like home automation, security system, etc.
It has fixed format instruction.It has variable format instruction.
The program written for RISC architecture needs to take more space in memory.Program written for CISC architecture tends to take less space in memory.
Example of RISC: ARM, PA-RISC, Power Architecture, Alpha, AVR, ARC and the SPARC.Examples of CISC: VAX, Motorola 68000 family, System/360, AMD and the Intel x86 CPUs.

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